The challenges that organized crime pose to a state and its citizens are hardly new. Nor are the concerted efforts to eradicate or ameliorate them. What has changed, at least since the early 1990s, is the perception that organized crime poses a globalised threat to national and international security. The failure of global governance to keep pace with globalization and its economic growth and development since the end of the Cold War has provided new opportunities for criminals to prosper. Specifically, so the Executive Director of the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC), organized crime “has diversified, gone global and reached macro-economic proportions”. Transnational organized crime crosses borders, challenges states, exploits individuals, pursues profit, wrecks economies, destroys civil society, and ultimately weakens global democracy. This course will trace the increasingly global nature of transnational organized crime, its growing portfolio of illicit activities in the world’s economy, and its impact on security.